Diese Seite: Textauszug aus Hevner et al: Design Science in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 75-105/March 2004, p.79-81 online: http://www.brian-fitzgerald.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Hevner-et-al-2004-misq-des-sci.pdf

Audio-Sprecherin: Nicola Fischer, fischerheidelberg.de

fp7 [DS vs. BS]


Textverständnis fp7

  • Sei ein *business need* klar beschrieben. In welchen zwei komplementären Ansäzen kann *IS research* betrieben werden?
  • Wodurch unterscheiden sich BS und DS:
    • bzgl. ihrer wissenschaftlichen Herkunft?
    • bzgl. ihrer Ziele?
    • bzgl. ihrer Methoden?
  • Gegeben sind folgende Begriffe:
    • development, justification, theory, explain, predict, build, evaluate, artifact, meet (solve) a business beed
    • Ordnen Sie diese Begriffe den BS oder DS zu!
    • Erstellen Sie ein semantisches Netz
  • Welcher Zusammenhang besteht zwischen Wahrheit (*truth*) und Nützlichkeit (*utility*)?
  • Was kann die Folge sein, wenn man Forschung durch *justify/evaluate*-Aktivitäten bewertet?
  • Worauf beziehen sich (z.B. in einem Wiss. Aufsatz) die *future research directions*?

Given such an articulated business need, IS research is conducted in two complementary phases. Behavioral science addresses research through the development and justification of theories that explain or predict phenomena related to the identified business need. Design science addresses research through the building and evaluation of artifacts designed to meet the identified business need.

The goal of behavioral-science research is truth. The goal of design-science research is utility.

As argued above, our position is that truth and utility are inseparable. Truth informs design and utility informs theory. An artifact may have utility because of some as yet undiscovered truth. A theory may yet to be developed to the point where its truth can be incorporated into design.

In both cases, research assessment via the justify/evaluate activities can result in the identification of weaknesses in the theory or artifact and the need to refine and reassess.

The refinement and reassessment process is typically described in future research directions.

fp8 [knowledge base]


Textverständnis fp8:

  • Welche Beiträge stellt die *knowledge base* der Forschung bereit?
  • Auf welche Arten von Wissen oder Artefakte kann man aus vorheriger Forschung zurückgreifen?
  • Für welche Aktivitäten in der Forschung bieten Methodologien in besonderer Weise Richtlinien?
  • Was versteht man unter *rigor*? Wodurch lässt sich *rigor* anstreben?
  • Worin wurzeln die Methodologien der *behavioural sciences* / der *design sciences*?
  • Welche Begriffe und Strukturen aus dem vorliegenden Absatz sind in Fig. 2 dargestellt - gleich, ähnlich, anders, lückenhaft, erweiternd?

The knowledge base provides the raw materials from and through which IS research is accomplished. The knowledge base is composed of foundations and methodologies.

Prior IS research and results from reference disciplines provide [XXX] used in the develop/build phase of a research study, [with XXX =] foundational theories, frameworks, instruments, constructs, models, methods, and instantiations.

Methodologies provide guidelines used in the justify/evaluate phase.

Rigor is achieved by appropriately applying existing foundations and methodologies. In behavioral science, methodologies are typically rooted in data collection and empirical analysis techniques. In design science, computational and mathematical methods are primarily used to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of artifacts; however, empirical techniques may also be employed.

fp9 [Bewertung der Forschungsergebnisse]


Textverständnis fp9:

  • Wodurch lassen sich die Beiträge von IS-Forschung bewerten?
  • Welche Forschung liefert KEINEN Beitrag zur IS-Literatur?

The contributions of behavioral science and design science in IS research are assessed as they are applied to the business need in an appropriate environment and as they add to the content of the knowledge base for further research and practice.

A justified theory that is not useful for the environment contributes as little to the IS literature as an artifact that solves a nonexistent problem.

fp10 [routine design vs. design science research]


Textverständnis fp10:

  • Was versteht man unter *routine design*? Beispiele?
  • Worin unterscheiden sich *routine design / system building* und *design research*?
  • Welche Gegenstände im Unterschied zu *routine design* die *design-science research* in den Blick?

One issue that must be addressed in design-science research is differentiating routine design or system building from design research. The difference is in the nature of the problems and solutions. Routine design is the application of existing knowledge to organizational problems, such as constructing a financial or marketing information system using best practice artifacts (constructs, models, methods, and instantiations) existing in the knowledge base. On the other hand, design-science research addresses important unsolved problems in unique or innovative ways or solved problems in more effective or efficient ways.

The key differentiator between routine design and design research is the clear identification of a contribution to the archival knowledge base of foundations and methodologies.

fp11 [artifacts pose questions to nature]


Textverständnis fp11:

  • Wie lautet die von Hevner zitierte Behauptung von Newell und Simon (1976)? (Wer waren Newel und Simon?)
  • Worauf muss man zurückgreifen, wenn man sich auf wenig bis kein existierendes Wissen stützen kann?
  • Was versteht man in der *design science research* unter *best practice*?
  • Wie hängen *design science research* und *system building* zusammen?

In the early stages of a discipline or with significant changes in the environment, each new artifact created for that discipline or environment is ``an experiment´´ that ``poses a question to nature´´ (Newell and Simon 1976, p 114).

Existing knowledge is used where appropriate; however, often the requisite knowledge is nonexistent (Markus et al. 2002). Reliance on creativity and trial-and-error search are characteristic of such research efforts.

As design-science research results are codified in the knowledge base, they become best practice. System building is then the routine application of the knowledge base to known problems.

fp12 [wicked problems]



  • Was versteht man in der Medizin unter *endemisch*?
  • Wie kann man dict.leo.org/englisch-deutsch/wicked in unserem Kontext interpretieren?
  • Wodurch sind *wicked problems* gekennzeichnet?

Design activities are endemic in many professions. In particular, the engineering profession has produced a considerable literature on design (Dym 1994; Pahl and Beitz 1996; Petroski 1996). Within the IS discipline, many design activities have been extensively studied, formalized, and become normal or routine.

Design-science research in IS addresses what are considered to be wicked problems (Brooks 1987, 1996; Rittel and Webber 1984). That is, those problems characterized by unstable requirements and constraints based upon ill-defined environmental contexts complex interactions among subcomponents of the problem and its solution inherent flexibility to change design processes as well as design artifacts (i.e., malleable processes and artifacts) a critical dependence upon human cognitive abilities (e.g., creativity) to produce effective solutions a critical dependence upon human social abilities (e.g., teamwork) to produce effective solutions

fp13 [scientific revolution]


Textverständnis: Alleine aus diesem Absatz nicht zu gewinnen!

  • Anfangsrecherche bei Wikipedia:
    • Wer war Thomas Kuhn?
    • Was sind wissenschaftliche Revolutionen?
  • Was folgt aus diesem Absatz für die Methodik der *design science research*?

As a result, we agree with Simon (1996) that a theory of design in information systems, of necessity, is in a constant state of scientific revolution (Kuhn 1996). Technological advances are the result of innovative, creative design science processes. If not capricious, they are at least arbitrary (Brooks 1987) with respect to business needs and existing knowledge.

Innovations, such as database management systems, high-level languages, personal computers, software components, intelligent agents, object technology, the Internet, and the World Wide Web, have had dramatic and at times unintended impacts on the way in which information systems are conceived, designed, implemented, and managed.

Consequently the guidelines we present below are, of necessity, adaptive and process-oriented.